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Description of the radar set, tactical-technical characteristics

Figure 1: MR-231-2 “Liman”

Figure 1: MR-231-2 “Liman”

frequency: 9 410 ± 30 MHz
pulse repetition time (PRT):
pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 2.8; 1.4; 0.7 kHz
pulsewidth (τ): 0.06; 0.35; 0.8 µs
receiving time:
dead time:
peak power: 4; 10 or 25 kW
average power:
instrumented range: 48 NM (≙ 89 km)
range resolution:
hits per scan:
antenna rotation: 15 min⁻¹


MR-231 „Najada” (Cyrillic: «Наяда», English: water nymph) is operating in the X-band naval navigation radar family for vessels with a gross tonnage of over 10,000 tonnes. They differ mainly in different antennas. (The MR-231 S is a separate radar in a different frequency range.)


MR-231-1 “Pal” (Cyrillic: «Пал», English: Dolphin structure) uses two antenna lengths: 1.6 m with waveguide feed on the right and 3 m with waveguide feed on the left. Due to the size of the antennas the rotary motor is more powerful and had to be mounted outside the housing.


MR-231-2 „Liman” (Cyrillic: «Лиман», English: backwater) uses a waveguide slot antenna with a length of 1.495 m. The motor is invisibly located inside the housing.

A variant of this radar for civil use was named Liman 18M1. The most important difference between civil and military system seems to be only the outer color (gray or white).


MR-231-3 „Waigatsch” (Cyrillic: «Вайгач», name of a Russian North Sea island) uses a reflector antenna. The transmitter got a pulse power of 25 kW


In MR-231-4 „Gals” (Cyrillic: «Галс», English: sailing maneuver Jibe (US) or Gybe (UK) the antenna is covered with a small cylindric radome. This radar has the lower pulse power of 4 kW.