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Appendix: “Semiconductors”

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Figure 1: Preview of internet representation

Figure 1. - The composition of a simple helium atom.

Figure 1. - The composition of a simple helium atom.

This appendix is intended to give a brief overview of semiconductor technology as a repetition of a physics lesson long ago. Please note that this homepage is much older than Wikipedia. It is only about an overview and an understanding of the applications of semiconductor devices.

As you can imagine from the name, semiconductors lie somewhere in their electrical properties between conductors and non-conductors (insulators). Two of the most well-known semiconductor devices are the junction diode and the transistor. These semiconductor devices are also called solid-state devices. These solid-state components are nothing more than electronic components whose function is based on the movement of electrons in semiconductor crystals.

To understand how these semiconductor devices work, the structure and structure of the semiconductor crystals must be considered. Knowledge of the structure of atoms is also a prerequisite for understanding the function of solid-state devices, which are increasingly used as modules in modern radar equipment.

There are following topics in this appendix (“How semiconductors work”) as a part of the lecture of Radar Basics:

- Atomic Structure Theory of the structure of an atom formulated by Niels Bohr. (nucleus, electrons, protons, neutrons, orbit, energy bands, valence band, conduction band, insulator, semiconductor, conductor, Pauli’s exclusion principle, shells)
- Covalent Bonding Atomic structure: covalent bonding between the atoms. (covalent bonds, valence shell, valence electrons, semiconductor, silicon, germanium)
- Conduction Process Conduction by holes: the intrinsic conduction process in semiconductor crystals. (valence electrons, semiconductor, crystal, conduction by holes, electron-hole pairs)
- Doping Process (Doping Process, Germanium crystal, doped with arsenic, doped with indium)
- Semiconductor Diode Applications of semiconductor diode. (crystal rectifiers, Junction Barrier)
- PN Junction Application (PN-Junction, application, semiconductor, conductor, Examples of diodes)
- Diode Switch The simplest application of a signal diode is the basic diode switch.
- Zener Diodes The Basic operation of Zener Diodes (PN-junction diode, Zener effect, avalanche breakdown)
- Tunnel Diode The Basic operation of Tunnel Diodes (Leo Esaki, negative resistance, quantum-mechanical tunneling)
- Varactor The operation of a varactor, or varicap as a variable capacitor. (varactor, varicap, depletion region, semiconductor)
- PIN- Diodes Construction and mode of operation of pin diodes (switches, fast, microwaves, pin diodes, semiconductor, intrisic region)
- Transistors Introduction to transistors
- Bipolar Transistors Introduction to bipolar transistors (classification, construction, )
- npn- Transistor Operation npn- Transistor Operation
- pnp- Transistor Operation pnp- Transistor Operation
- Field Effect Transistors Construction and mode of operation of Field Effect Transistors (FET, JFET)
- MOSFET Construction and mode of operation of MOSFETs (MOSFET common source amplifier)