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Description of the radar set, tactical-technical characteristics

Figure 1: Kivach 3

Figure 1: Kivach 3

frequency: 9 400 … 9 460 MHz
pulse repetition time (PRT):
pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 3.0 or 2.0 kHz
pulsewidth (τ): 0.1 or 0.3 µs
receiving time:
dead time:
peak power: 7 kW
average power: 28 W
instrumented range: 25 NM (≙ 46 km)
range resolution:
beamwidth: β= 1.7° or 1°; ε= 25°
hits per scan:
antenna rotation: 17 (± 2) rpm


Kivach (Cyrillic: «Кивач»; the name of a waterfall in Karelia) is a navigation and surface surveillance radar operating in X-band. There are three equipment variants: Kivach 1, Kivach 2, and Kivach 3, whose radar characteristics are nearly the same. Starting with the Kivach 2 version, the radar is coupled with a gyrocompass, which allows the screen display to be oriented to the north. Kivach 1 and Kivach 2 use a waveguide slot antenna with a beamwidth of 1.7 degrees.

Kivach 3 or „Mius“ (Cyrillic: Миус) uses a parabolic antenna with two-channel synchro transformers for coupling with a gyrocompass and provides an extension of the cables between the antenna unit and the display units from 10 to 20 meters.

The transmitter uses the MI-507 magnetron in all versions. The receiver got an IF amplifier with logarithmic gain. The PPI scope had a diameter of 180 mm. It could be enlarged with a micro Fresnel lens positioned in front of it.

The radar was developed before 1968. Because of its low weight, it was widely used on smaller ships and boats of the former socialist states in the early 1970s.

Picture gallery of Kivach

Figure 2: Antenne von Kivach 2

Figure 3: Impulsmagnetron MI507,
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