Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
The term Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, abbreviated to ISR, is used to describe coordinated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance activities in direct support of an operation. It is a part of electronic warfare.
The individual elements of ISR are:
- Intelligence: the final product derived from surveillance and reconnaissance, fused with other information;
- Surveillance: the persistent monitoring of a target; and
- Reconnaissance: information-gathering conducted to answer a specific military question.
Surveillance and reconnaissance involve visual or electronic observation, including the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with cameras, such as the ALADIN, KZO, and LUNA systems, used in Germany. While both are targeted activities, surveillance is a longer-term activity, while reconnaissance is conducted quickly to obtain specific information.
ISR solutions are a set of technologies, systems, and processes used to collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence and information related to a specific area or threat. These solutions help decision-makers and stakeholders develop a better understanding of conditions on the ground, in the air, at sea, in space, and in cyber security. NATO allies collaborate to gather, analyze, and share information for maximum impact. For this purpose, the above term is changed to Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, JISR.