#  Radar Basics

#### Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of the viewing directions for the time domain and the frequency domain Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of the viewing directions for the time domain and the frequency domain

#### Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain

For the comparison of the time domain and the frequency domain in signal processing, a three-dimensional model shown in Figure 1 is used. A signal mixture of (here) three sinusoidal frequencies can be viewed in the time domain, which corresponds to the display on an oscilloscope, or in the frequency domain, which corresponds to the display on a spectrum analyzer. In this model, however, all three sinusoidal frequencies are represented on different input channels. If they were only present as a signal mixture on one channel, they would overlap and (here) be represented as a strongly distorted square wave pulse (see: Fourier analysis).

The time domain (TD) is a projection of the model from the direction that the ordinate represents the amplitude or power of the signal. The time is represented in the abscissa. This is a common representation of oscilloscopes or modern network analyzers.

The frequency domain (FD) is a projection of the model from the direction that the ordinate also represents the amplitude or power of the signal. But in the abscissa, the frequency is represented. This representation is supported by spectrum analyzers, filter banks or in the simplest case by frequency-selective voltmeters.

Both viewing directions are only a projection of this three-dimensional model. This applies both to display devices (oscilloscopes or spectrum analyzers) and to signal processing routines since these viewing directions can also be available as an image in a two-dimensional memory structure. Conversion of signals in the time domain to the frequency domain is easily possible with a Fourier transformation. The time domain, on the other hand, is rather a traditional way of observation. In this form, the representation is very informative, because it shows what happens with the signal. Very important for a pulse radar: it shows directly time delays and can, therefore, show the distance for a radar target proportional to the propagation time. This leads directly to the classic radar scope: the A-scope. After this distance measurement, modern radar sets often convert to the frequency range, because then it can be examined whether Doppler frequencies are present and if so, how many. This makes target identification possible. For a linear frequency modulated FMCW radar, distance and, if necessary, radial speed can be determined directly from the value of the frequency of the echo signal. These radars will, therefore, use the frequency range in the displays.

#### Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of the viewing directions for the time domain and the frequency range Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of the viewing directions for the time domain and the frequency range

#### Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain

There are primarily two ways of viewing any type of a wave; in the time domain, or in the frequency domain.

The time domain is the analysis of physical signals with respect to time. The horizontal axis is time, and is expressed in seconds or parts of it. A time-domain graph shows how a signal changes over time.

frequency domain is the analysis of physical signals with respect to frequency. A frequency domain graph shows how much of the signal is within a given frequency band over a range of frequencies. The frequency domain is more compact and useful when we are dealing with more than one sine wave, i.e. with composite signals. For example, Figure 1 shows three sine waves, each with different amplitude and frequency. All can be represented by three spikes in the frequency domain.