www.radartutorial.eu www.radartutorial.eu Radar Basics

Table of Content

TopicContentsCorresponding Terms
Historical Overview    
Mathematically Basics Learning Objectives 
Preamble used physical laws of nature 
Radar Basic Principles operating principle of a primary radar Distance-Determination
Maximum Unambiguous Range
Minimal Measuring Range
Elevation Angle
The Radar Equation The radar equation in the practice  
Frequency-diversity Radar Radar equation of a frequency diversity radar  
Resolution Range Resolution
Angular Resolution
Resolution Cell
Classification of Radar systems ...depending on the different techniques
...depending on the designed use
Continuous- Wave Radar
ATC Radar
Fire-control radar
Air-Defense Radars
Mortar Locating Radar
„Distronic” Radar
Ground penetrating radar
Bistatic Radars Bistatic Basic Principles
Bistatic Radar Sets
Determination of the aims position
Passive Radar
Antennae Techniques Functions of an Antenna
Antenna Characteristics
Antenna Gain
Antenna pattern
Beam Width
Major and Side (Minor) Lobes
Especially Antenna Beams Beams for command guided missiles
The Conical Scan
High- and Low-Beam
Long Range- and Short Range Beam
Pencil- Beam
Antennae Techniques Yagi Antennae
Logarithmic Periodical Antennae
Parabolic Antennae
Cosecant Squared Pattern
Cassegrain Antennae
Isotropic Radiation
Half-wave Antennae
Reflector Irregularities
Phased Array Antennae Function
Feeding Systems
Phase Shifter
Monopulse Antennae LVA
Electronic antennae-switches Duplexer Branch- Duplexer
Balanced Duplexer
Duplexer using PIN-Diodes
Radar Transmitters Transmitter Requirements  
Pseudo-coherent Radar Block diagram
Disadvantages of a pseudo-coherent radars
Fully-coherent Radar Block diagram
Crossed-Field Amplifier (Amplitron)
Traveling Wave Tube
Solid State Amplifier
Transmittermodules for active antennae
Waveform- Generator
Pulse Compression
Radar Receiver Technology Requirements for Radar receivers  
Superheterodyne Receiver Invention of a Superheterodyne
Block Diagram
Image-Frequency Interferences
Double Heterodyning
Gain Control Methods Sensitivity Time Control (STC)
Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
Logarithmic Amplifier
Dynamic Swept Gain
Noise in a receiver Noise
Noise Figure
Noise Temperature
Automatic Frequency Control  
Radar Signal Processing Clutter Concept of Coherence
Non-coherent Radar Processing Cluttermap
„Dicke Fix” -processing
Fast Time Constant (FTC)
Doppler frequency Doppler- Effect
Pulse-Pair Processing
Phase Comparison
Frequency Comparison
Blind Speed
Wind Compensation
Radar Signal Processing Radar Signal Processor/ Block Diagram
I & Q -processing
Plot Combiner
Sliding Window
Data Transmission
Centre of mass correlation
Time Stamp
Fast Fourier Transformation
Radar Indicators Demands on Radar Indicators  
A-scope Block Diagram
PPI-scope Block Diagram
Secondary Radar Technology PSR vs. SSR  
Functional Block Diagram ICAO- Standards
Interrogation Format
The Reply Message
IFF- Side Lobe Suppression Interrogation Path Side Lobe Suppression (ISLS)
Reply Path Side Lobe Suppression (RSLS)
Improved ISLS (IISLS)
SSR system problems: Interferences Fruit / Defuiter
Garbling / Degarbling
The transponder no reply
Weather Radar Basic Principle of Operation PSR vs. Weather Radar
Weather Radar Range Equation
Weather Radar Applications Ground based Weather Radar
Short Range Weather Radar
Long Range Weather Radar
PSR with Weather Channel
Airborne Weather Radar
Weather Radar Components Antenna/ Receiver
Processing Equipment
Display in the cockpit
Stabilisation (tilt and roll)
Types of Weather Comparative Reflectivity
„Bright Band”
Dual Polarisation Radar Block Diagram