www.radartutorial.eu Radar Basics

Appendix: “Semiconductors”

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Figure 1. - The composition of a simple helium atom.

Figure 1. - The composition of a simple helium atom.

As you easy inagine, semiconductors have electrical properties somewhere between those of insulators and conductors. Two of the most widely known semiconductors in use today are the Junction Diode and Transistor. These semiconductors fall under a more general heading called solid-state devices. A Solid-State Device is nothing more than an electronic device, which operates by virtue of the movement of electrons within a solid piece of semiconductor material.

To understand why solid-state devices function as they do, we will have to examine closely the composition and nature of semiconductors. This entails theory that is fundamental to the study of solid-state devices.

There are following topics in this appendix ("How semiconductors work") as a part of the lecture of Radar Basics:

- Atomic Structure Theory of the structure of an atom formulated by Niels Bohr. (nucleus, electrons, protons, neutrons, orbit, energy bands, valence band, conduction band, insulator, semiconductor, conductor, Pauli's exclusion principle, shells)
- Covalent Bonding Atomic structure: covalent bonding between the atoms. (covalent bonds, valence shell, valence electrons, semiconductor, silicon, germanium)
- Conduction Process Conduction by holes: the intrinsic conduction process in semiconductor crystals. (valence electrons, semiconductor, crystal, conduction by holes, electron-hole pairs)
- Doping Process (Doping Process, Germanium crystal, doped with arsenic, doped with indium)
- Semiconductor Diode Applications of semiconductor diode. (crystal rectifiers, Junction Barrier)
- PN Junction Application (PN-Junction, application, semiconductor, conductor, Examples of diodes)
- Diode Switch The simplest application of a signal diode is the basic diode switch.
- Zener Diodes The Basic operation of Zener Diodes (PN-junction diode, Zener effect, avalanche breakdown)
- Tunnel Diode The Basic operation of Tunnel Diodes (Leo Esaki, negative resistance, quantum-mechanical tunneling)
- Varactor The operation of a varactor, or varicap as a variable capacitor. (varactor, varicap, depletion region, semiconductor)
- PIN- Diodes Construction and mode of operation of pin diodes (switches, fast, microwaves, pin diodes, semiconductor, intrisic region)
- Transistors Introduction to transistors
- Bipolar Transistors Introduction to bipolar transistors (classification, construction, )
- npn- Transistor Operation npn- Transistor Operation
- pnp- Transistor Operation pnp- Transistor Operation
- Field Effect Transistors Construction and mode of operation of Field Effect Transistors (FET, JFET)
- MOSFET Construction and mode of operation of MOSFETs (MOSFET common source amplifier)