#### Antenna Characteristics

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Figure 1: Antenna pattern in a polar-coordinate graph

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Figure 1: Antenna pattern in a polar-coordinate graph

#### Antenna Characteristics

##### Antenna Gain

Independent of the use of a given antenna for transmitting or receiving, an important characteristic
of this antenna is the **gain**. Some antennas are highly directional; that is, more energy
is propagated in certain directions than in others. The ratio between the amount of energy propagated
in these directions compared to the energy that would be propagated if the antenna were not directional
(Isotropic Radiation)
is known as its gain. When a transmitting antenna with a certain gain is used as a receiving antenna,
it will also have the same gain for receiving.

Most radiators emit (radiate) stronger radiation in one direction than in another.
A radiator such as this is referred to as **anisotropic**. However, a standard method
allows the positions around a source to be marked so that one radiation pattern can
easily be compared with another.

The energy radiated from an antenna forms a field having a definite **radiation pattern**.
A radiation pattern is a way of plotting the radiated energy from an antenna.
This energy is measured at various angles at a constant distance from the antenna.
The shape of this pattern depends on the type of antenna used.

To plot this pattern, two different types of graphs, rectangular-and
polar-coordinate graphs are used. The **polar-coordinated graph** has proved to be of
great use in studying radiation patterns. In the polar-coordinate graph, points are
located by projection along a rotating axis (radius) to an intersection with one
of several concentric, equally-spaced circles. The polar-coordinate graph of the measured
radiation is shown in Figure 1.

The **main beam** (or **main lobe** ) is the region around the direction of maximum radiation
(usually the region that is within 3 dB of the peak of the main beam).
The main beam in Figure 1 is northbound.

The **sidelobes** are smaller beams that are away from the main beam.
These sidelobes are usually radiation in undesired directions which can never be completely eliminated.
The sidelobe level (or sidelobe ratio) is an important parameter used to characterize radiation patterns.
It is the maximum value of the sidelobes away from the main beam and is expressed in Decibels.
One sidelobe is called **backlobe**.
This is the portion of radiation pattern that is directed opposing the main beam direction.

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back ratio

Figure 2: The same antenna pattern in a rectangular-coordinate graph

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back ratio

Figure 2: The same antenna pattern in a rectangular-coordinate graph

The now following graph shows the **rectangular-coordinated graph** for the same source.
In the rectangular-coordinate graph, points are located by projection from a pair of stationary,
perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis on the rectangular-coordinate graph corresponds
to the circles on the polar-coordinate graph. The vertical axis on the rectangular-coordinate
graph corresponds to the rotating axis (radius) on the polar-coordinate graph.
The measurement scales in the graphs can have linear as well as logarithmic steps.

##### Beam Width

The angular range of the antenna pattern in which at least half of the maximum power
is still emitted is described as a “Beam With”. Bordering points of this
main lobe are therefore the points at which the field strength has fallen in the room
around 3 dB regarding the maximum field strength. This angle is then described as
beam width or aperture angle or half power (−3 dB) angle – with notation
Θ (also φ).
The beamwidth Θ is exactly the angle between the 2 red
marked directions in the upper pictures. The angle Θ can be determined in the
horizontal plane
(with notation Θ_{az}) as well as in the vertical plane
(with notation Θ_{el}).

##### Beam solid angle

A solid angle is a two-dimensional angle measurement symbolized by Ω,
units are steradians, Sr.
The beam solid angle of an antenna Ω_{A}
is defined as the solid angle through which all the power of the antenna would flow if it's radiation intensity
is constant and equal to the maximum value for all angles within Ω_{A}.
It is a rather theoretical value, but can be approximated for antennas with very strong directivity and small side lobes with:

Ω_{A} ≈ Θ_{az}·Θ_{el} |
Where: | Θ_{az} = horizontal beamwidthΘ _{el} = vertical beamwidth |
(1) |

There are models in which the projection of the beam solid angle onto the circular surface is represented as a square with the edge lengths of the vertical and horizontal beamwidths, as well as models in which it is represented circularly or elliptically.

##### Main and Side Lobes (Minor Lobes)

The pattern shown in the upper figures has radiation concentrated in several lobes.
The radiation intensity in one lobe is considerably stronger than in the other.
The strongest lobe is called **main lobe**; the others are (minor) **side lobes**.
Since the complex radiation patterns associated with arrays frequently contain several
lobes of varying intensity, you should learn to use appropriate terminology.
In general, main lobes are those in which the greatest amount of radiation occurs.
Side or minor lobes are those in which the radiation intensity is least.

##### Front-to-Back Ratio

The front-to-back ratio of an antenna is the proportion of energy radiated in the principal direction of radiation to the energy radiated in the opposite direction. A high front-to-back ratio is desirable because this means that a minimum amount of energy is radiated in the undesired direction.

##### Aperture

Figure 3: The antenna aperture is a section of a spherical surface

The effective aperture of an antenna A_{e} is the area presented to the radiated
or received signal. It is a key parameter, which governs the performance of the antenna.
The gain is related to the effective area by the following relationship:

G = | 4π · A_{e} |
; A_{e} = K_{a}·A |
Where: | λ = wave length A _{e} = effective antenna apertureA = physical area of the antenna K _{a} = antenna aperture efficiency |
(2) |

λ^{2} |

The aperture efficiency depends on the distribution of the illumination across the aperture.
If this is linear then K_{a}= 1. This high efficiency is
offset by the relatively high level of sidelobes obtained with linear illumination.
Therefore, antennas with more practical levels of sidelobes have an antenna aperture efficiency
less than one (A_{e}< A).

##### Bandwidth

The antenna’s bandwidth is the range of operating frequencies over which the antenna meets the operational requirements, including:

- Spatial properties (radiation characteristics)
- Polarization properties
- Impedance properties
- Propagation mode properties

Most antenna technologies can support operation over a frequency range that is 5 to 10% of the central frequency (e.g., 100 to 200 MHz bandwidth at 2 GHz) due to their resonance characteristics. To achieve wideband operation requires specialized antenna technologies (e.g., Logarithmic Periodical Dipole Antenna, Tapered Slot Antenna).